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2023 Defined Benefit Plan


Defined benefit plans continue to be a cornerstone of retirement strategies, offering a fixed, pre-established payment to employees upon retirement. Often referred to as defined benefit pension plans or defined benefit retirement plans, they remain a popular choice for many businesses.

Do I Qualify for the Defined Benefit Plan?

A defined benefit pension plan remains a type of qualified plan wherein an employer or sponsor assures a specified pension payment to employees post-retirement. The essence of the plan remains the same: the predetermined amount is based on the employee’s earnings history, years of service, and age, rather than being directly influenced by individual investment returns. Most contributions to these plans are made by employers, though some plans still permit or mandate employee contributions.

2023 Defined Benefit Plan Details

The fundamentals of a defined benefit pension plan are consistent with previous years. However, the plan must adhere to certain requirements to avail the tax benefits associated with qualified plans:

  • Protection against diversion: Plan assets should solely benefit the employees and their beneficiaries.

  • Adherence to nondiscrimination rules: The plan shouldn’t favor highly compensated employees excessively.

  • Compliance with a minimum coverage requirement.

  • Adherence to contribution and benefits limits.

  • Meeting minimum vesting standards.

  • Abiding by plan participation rules.


Contributions remain grounded in providing the necessary benefits to plan participants. The complexity of these calculations, based on actuarial assumptions, adds to the operational costs of defined benefit plans. Yet, the stability these plans promise is often appreciated by employees. For employers, the advantage lies in larger possible contributions and subsequent tax deductions when compared to defined contribution plans.


  • Possibility of having other retirement plans.

  • Suitable for businesses of all sizes.

  • Significant benefits can be accumulated in a short span, even if one opts for early retirement.

  • A reliable, predictable benefit stream.

  • Flexible vesting schedules.

  • Independence from asset returns.

  • Potential for participant loans.

  • Promotion of specific business strategies through early retirement benefits.


  • Annual filing of Form 5500 with a Schedule B is necessary.

  • An enrolled actuary is required to determine funding levels and sign off on the Schedule B.

  • Benefits cannot be reduced retroactively.

  • Remains the most expensive plan type.

  • High administrative complexity.

  • Potential excise tax for not meeting minimum contribution requirements or over-contributing.

  • Generally, distributions before age 62 aren't permissible.

  • Competing strategies: SIMPLE IRA for Businesses, SIMPLE 401(k) for Businesses.

Assumptions When Opting for the Defined Benefit Plan Assuming the employer continues to make the maximum permissible contributions.

Requirements to Avail the Defined Benefit Plan

  • Contributions should focus on providing the necessary benefits to participants, which demands actuarial assumptions.

  • Generally, 25% of the annual due amount should be deposited every quarter, with potential interest and penalties for underfunding.

  • Typically, the annual employee benefit should not surpass the lower of 100% of their three-year high-average compensation or the IRS-determined annual maximum amount.

Competing Strategies

  • Cash Balance Plan

  • Section 412(e)(3) Plan

  • SIMPLE 401(k) (Business)

  • SIMPLE IRA (Business)

Business Entities Eligible for the Defined Benefit Plan

  • Schedule C

  • Schedule F

  • S Corporation

  • C Corporation


The Defined Benefit Plan for 2023 continues to be a pivotal tool for ensuring the financial security of employees post-retirement. By offering a predetermined, fixed benefit based on factors like earnings history, tenure, and age, it offers predictability and peace of mind in an often uncertain financial landscape. While the plan does come with its administrative complexities, the benefits often outweigh the challenges, especially when one considers the substantial contributions, tax deductions for businesses, and the flexibility in vesting schedules. As with any financial tool, it's imperative for both employers and employees to stay updated with the latest regulations and requirements to make the most out of this retirement plan.

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